An extensive diagnostic workup that incorporates magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathology tests, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses is required to differentiate between immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and other differential diagnoses in patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy.
Why this matters
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been very effective for treating melanoma. However, irAEs can be severe and require early diagnosis and treatment.
Although neurotoxicity is rare in patients following immune checkpoint inhibitor and BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatments, there is the possibility that a cumulative effect of these treatments may be associated with the pathophysiology of neurological adverse effects.